Lithuania auf deutsch

lithuania auf deutsch

Übersetzung für 'Republic of Lithuania' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. [1] Lateinischer Wikipedia-Artikel „Lituania“, dort auch die Schreibweise „ Lithuania“: [1] Karl Ernst Georges: Kleines Handwörterbuch, Deutsch – Lateinisch. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Lithuania' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. According to estimates, the age structure of the population was as follows: In —, the network of hospitals was restructured, as part of wider healthcare service reforms. It is a crime to deny or "grossly trivialize" Soviet or Nazi German crimes against Lithuania or its citizens, or to deny genocide, crimes against humanityor war crimes. Retrieved 7 June The Lithuanian head of state is the president, directly elected for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two terms. 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Ausgaben der postsekundären nicht-tertiären Bildungsebene sind zum Teil unter dem tertiären Bildungsniveau erfasst; Vereinigte Staaten: In den EU sowie in Kroatien und der Türkei ist das Muster uneinheitlicher, mit einem beträchtlichen Rückgang überlanger Arbeitszeiten in den meisten Ländern vor allem in Slowenien, der Tschechischen. Visit to the testing laboratory at one of Lithuania s technical universities where a range of construction products are tested. Diese Informationen werden bei der Vorbereitung der Verhandlungen der Republik Litauen über Luftverkehrsabkommen berücksichtigt. Malta, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland and the Kingdom of Sweden shall be authorised to establish closer cooperation among themselves in areas covered by provisions defined by the Council which constitute the Schengen acquis. In cooperation with the embassy of the Republic of Lithuania. Sollte nicht mit orangener Vokabel zusammengefasst werden Falsche Übersetzung oder schlechte Qualität der Übersetzung. Since that time, countries such as Lithuania have made considerable agricultural progress. By letter dated 18 September , the Republic of Lithuania nominated:

The Baltic states were occupied. The Soviets followed semi-constitutional procedures for transforming the independent countries into soviet republics and incorporating them into the Soviet Union.

Vladimir Dekanozov was sent to supervise the formation of the puppet People's Government and the rigged election to the People's Seimas.

Lithuania was rapidly sovietizied: Lithuanians proclaimed independence and organized the Provisional Government of Lithuania.

This government quickly self-disbanded. Approximately 13, men served in the Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions.

The Lietuvos saugumo policija targeted the communist underground. However, thousands of Lithuanian families risking their lives also protected Jews from the Holocaust.

A new occupation had begun. Nationalized assets were not returned to the residents. Some of them were forced to fight for Nazi Germany or were taken to German territories as a forced laborers.

Jewish people were herded into ghettos and gradually killed by shooting or sending them out to concentration camps.

After the retreat of the German armed forces , the Soviets reestablished their control of Lithuania in July—October The massive deportations to Siberia were resumed and lasted until the death of Stalin in All Lithuanian national symbols were banned.

Under the pretext of Lithuania's economic recovery, the Moscow authorities encouraged the migration of workers and other specialists to Lithuania with the intention to further integrate Lithuania into the Soviet Union and to develop the country's industry.

At the same time, Lithuanians were lured to work in the USSR by promising them all the privileges of settling in a new place.

The second Soviet occupation was accompanied by the guerrilla warfare of the Lithuanian population, which took place in — It sought to restore an independent state of Lithuania, to consolidate democracy by destroying communism in the country, returning national values and the freedom of religion.

Classified as bandits by the Soviets, Lithuanians took to the forests and fought them with a gun in their hands. The number of people in a group fell to 3—5 people.

Even with the suppression of partisan resistance, the Soviet government failed to stop the movement for the independence of Lithuania.

The underground dissident groups were active publishing the underground press and Catholic literature. In , after Romas Kalanta's public self-immolation, the unrest in Kaunas lasted for several days.

The Helsinki Group , which was founded in Lithuania after the international conference in Helsinki Finland , where the post-WWII borders were acknowledged, announced a declaration for Lithuania's independence on foreign radio station.

Very soon it began to seek country's independence. On 23 August a big rally took place at the Vingis Park in Vilnius.

It was attended by approx. On 11 March , the Supreme Council announced the restoration of Lithuania's independence. On 20 April , the USSR imposed an economic blockade by stopping to deliver supplies of raw materials primarily oil to Lithuania.

Not only the domestic industry, but also the population started feeling the lack of fuel, essential goods, and even hot water. Although the blockade lasted for 74 days, Lithuania did not renounce the declaration of independence.

Gradually, the economic relations had been restored. However, the tension had peaked again in January But the situation was the opposite.

People from all over Lithuania flooded to Vilnius to defend their legitimately elected Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania and independence.

The coup ended with a few casualties of peaceful civilians and caused huge material loss. Not a single person who defended Lithuanian Parliament or other state institutions used a weapon, but the Soviet Army did.

Soviet soldiers killed 14 people and injured hundreds. A large part of the Lithuanian population participated in the January Events.

On 31 July , Soviet paramilitaries killed seven Lithuanian border guards on the Belarusian border in what became known as the Medininkai Massacre.

On 25 October , the citizens of Lithuania voted in the referendum to adopt the current constitution. On 14 February , during the direct general elections, Algirdas Brazauskas became the first president after the restoration of independence of Lithuania.

On 31 August , the last units of the Soviet Army left the territory of Lithuania. On 1 May , it became a full-fledged member of the European Union , and a member of the Schengen Agreement on 21 December It has around 99 kilometres The rest of the coast is sheltered by the Curonian sand peninsula.

The country's main and largest river, the Nemunas River , and some of its tributaries carry international shipping.

Lithuania lies at the edge of the North European Plain. Its landscape was smoothed by the glaciers of the last ice age , and is a combination of moderate lowlands and highlands.

Lithuania's climate, which ranges between maritime and continental , is relatively mild. Some winters can be very cold.

Snow occurs every year, it can snow from October to April. In some years sleet can fall in September or May. The growing season lasts days in the western part of the country and days in the eastern part.

Severe storms are rare in the eastern part of Lithuania but common in the coastal areas. The longest records of measured temperature in the Baltic area cover about years.

The data show warm periods during the latter half of the 18th century, and that the 19th century was a relatively cool period. An early 20th century warming culminated in the s, followed by a smaller cooling that lasted until the s.

A warming trend has persisted since then. Lithuania experienced a drought in , causing forest and peat bog fires.

The law provided the foundations for regulating social relations in the field of environmental protection, established the basic rights and obligations of legal and natural persons in preserving the biodiversity inherent in Lithuania, ecological systems and the landscape.

Lithuania does not have high mountains and its landscape is dominated by blooming meadows, dense forests and fertile fields of cereals.

However it stands out by the abundance of hillforts , which previously had castles where the ancient Lithuanians burned altars for pagan gods.

Many rivers are also flowing in Lithuania, most notably the longest Nemunas. Forest has long been one of the most important natural resources in Lithuania.

Lithuanian ecosystems include natural and semi-natural forests, bogs, wetlands, meadows , and anthropogenic agrarian and urban ecosystems.

Wetlands raised bogs, fens, transitional mires, etc. Changes in wetland plant communities resulted in the replacement of moss and grass communities by trees and shrubs, and fens not directly affected by land reclamation have become drier as a result of a drop in the water table.

In some cases, river and lake ecosystems continue to be impacted by anthropogenic eutrophication.

Habitat deterioration is occurring in regions with very productive and expensive lands as crop areas are expanded.

The wildlife populations have rebounded as the hunting became more restricted and urbanization allowed replanting forests forests already tripled in size since their lows.

Currently, Lithuania has approximately , larger wild animals or 5 per each square kilometer. The most prolific large wild animal in every part of Lithuania is the roe deer , with , of them.

They are followed by boars 55, Wolves are, however, more ingrained into the mythology as there are just in Lithuania. Since Lithuania declared the restoration of its independence on 11 March , it has maintained strong democratic traditions.

It held its first independent general elections on 25 October , in which The Lithuanian head of state is the president, directly elected for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two terms.

The president oversees foreign affairs and national security, and is the commander-in-chief of the military. The president also appoints the prime minister and, on the latter's nomination, the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts.

The judges of the Constitutional Court Konstitucinis Teismas serve nine-year terms. They are appointed by the President, the Chairman of the Seimas, and the Chairman of the Supreme Court, each of whom appoint three judges.

The unicameral Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas , has members who are elected to four-year terms. Lithuania exhibits a fragmented multi-party system, [] with a number of small parties in which coalition governments are common.

Ordinary elections to the Seimas take place on the second Sunday of October every four years. Persons serving or due to serve a sentence imposed by the court 65 days before the election are not eligible.

Also, judges, citizens performing military service, and servicemen of professional military service and officials of statutory institutions and establishments may not stand for election.

The President of Lithuania is the head of state of the country, elected to a five-year term in a majority vote. Elections take place on the last Sunday no more than two months before the end of current presidential term.

Same President may serve for not more than two terms. Each municipality in Lithuania is governed by a municipal council and a mayor , who is a member of the municipal council.

The number of members, elected on a four-year term, in each municipal council depends on the size of the municipality and varies from 15 in municipalities with fewer than 5, residents to 51 in municipalities with more than , residents.

Starting with , the mayor is elected directly by the majority of residents of the municipality. As of , the number of seats in the European Parliament allocated to Lithuania was The vote is open to all citizens of Lithuania, as well as citizens of other EU countries that permanently reside in Lithuania, who are at least 18 years old on the election day.

To be eligible for election, candidates must be at least 21 years old on the election day, citizen of Lithuania or citizen of another EU country permanently residing in Lithuania.

Candidates are not allowed to stand for election in more than one country. After regaining of independence in , the largely modified Soviet legal codes were in force for about a decade.

The current Constitution of Lithuania was adopted on 25 October The approach to the criminal law is inquisitorial , as opposed to adversarial ; it is generally characterised by an insistence on formality and rationalisation, as opposed to practicality and informality.

The European Union law is an integral part of the Lithuanian legal system since 1 May Lithuania, after breaking away from the Soviet Union had a difficult crime situation, however the Lithuanian law enforcement agencies eliminated many criminals over the years, making Lithuania a reasonably safe country.

In , there were 63, crimes registered in Lithuania. Of these, thefts comprised a large part with 19, cases While 2, crimes were very hard and hard crimes that may result in more than six years imprisonment , which is Totally, homicides or attempted homicide occurred Another problematic crime contraband cases also decreased by Meanwhile, crimes in electronic data and information technology security fields noticeably increased by Capital punishment in Lithuania was suspended in and fully eliminated in According to scientist Gintautas Sakalauskas, this is not because of a high criminality rate in the country, but due to Lithuania's high repression level and the lack of trust of the convicted, who are frequently sentenced to a jail imprisonment.

The current system of administrative division was established in and modified in to meet the requirements of the European Union.

The country's 10 counties Lithuanian: Each has its own elected government. The election of municipality councils originally occurred every three years, but now takes place every four years.

The council appoints elders to govern the elderships. Mayors have been directly elected since ; prior to that, they were appointed by the council.

Elderships, numbering over , are the smallest administrative units and do not play a role in national politics. They provide necessary local public services—for example, registering births and deaths in rural areas.

They are most active in the social sector, identifying needy individuals or families and organizing and distributing welfare and other forms of relief.

Lithuania became a member of the United Nations on 18 September , and is a signatory to a number of its organizations and other international agreements.

Lithuania has established diplomatic relations with countries. During the second half of , Lithuania assumed the role of the presidency of the European Union.

Lithuania is also active in developing cooperation among northern European countries. It has been a member of the Baltic Council since its establishment in The Baltic Council, located in Tallinn , is a permanent organisation of international cooperation that operates through the Baltic Assembly and the Baltic Council of Ministers.

Lithuania also cooperates with Nordic and the two other Baltic countries through the NB8 format. NB6's focus is to discuss and agree on positions before presenting them to the Council of the European Union and at the meetings of EU foreign affairs ministers.

Its main aim is to promote integration and to close contacts between the region's countries. The Nordic Council of Ministers and Lithuania engage in political cooperation to attain mutual goals and to determine new trends and possibilities for joint cooperation.

The Council's information office aims to disseminate Nordic concepts and to demonstrate and promote Nordic cooperation.

The Baltic Development Forum BDF is an independent nonprofit organization that unites large companies, cities, business associations and institutions in the Baltic Sea region.

In the BDF's 12th summit was held in Vilnius. In , Lithuania was elected to the United Nations Security Council for a two-year term, [] becoming the first Baltic country elected to this post.

During its membership, Lithuania actively supported Ukraine and often condemned Russia for the military intervention in Ukraine , immediately earning vast Ukrainians esteem.

The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of some 15, active personnel, which may be supported by reserve forces. There are also special operation forces units in Afghanistan, placed in Kandahar Province.

Since joining international operations in , Lithuania has lost two soldiers: Normundas Valteris fell in Bosnia , as his patrol vehicle drove over a mine.

The Lithuanian National Defence Policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters and airspace, and its constitutional order.

Its main strategic goals are to defend the country's interests, and to maintain and expand the capabilities of its armed forces so they may contribute to and participate in the missions of NATO and European Union member states.

The defense ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue , and intelligence operations. The 5, border guards fall under the Interior Ministry 's supervision and are responsible for border protection, passport and customs duties, and share responsibility with the navy for smuggling and drug trafficking interdiction.

A special security department handles VIP protection and communications security. Paramilitary organisation Lithuanian Riflemen's Union acts as civilian self-defence institution.

For a long time Lithuania lagged behind NATO allies in terms of defense spending, but in recent years it has begun to rapidly increase the funding.

In Lithuania intends to allocate 2. Lithuania has open and mixed economy that is classified as high-income economy by the World Bank.

On 1 January , euro became the national currency replacing litas at the rate of EUR 1. Agricultural products and food made Lithuanian GDP experienced very high real growth rates for decade up to , peaking at As a result, the country was often termed as a Baltic Tiger.

However, , due to Global financial crisis marked experienced a drastic decline — GDP contracted by According to IMF, financial conditions are conducive to growth and financial soundness indicators remain strong.

The public debt ratio in fell to 40 percent of GDP, to compare with In , Lithuania was third country, after Ireland and Singapore by the average job value of investment projects.

Next up are Germany and the UK, each representing In the period between and , one out of five Lithuanians left the country, mostly because of insufficient income situation [] or seeking the new experience and studies abroad.

Long term emigration and economy growth has resulted in noticeable shortages on the labor market [] and growth in salaries being larger than growth in labor efficiency.

Lithuania has a flat tax rate rather than a progressive scheme. The country has the lowest implicit rate of tax on capital 9. Information technology production is growing in the country, reaching 1.

Biggest companies in Lithuania in , by revenue: Agriculture in Lithuania dates to the Neolithic period, about 3, to 1, BC.

It has been one of Lithuania's most important occupations for many centuries. The EU pursues a very high standard of food safety and purity. In , agricultural production was made for 2.

Cereal crops occupied the largest part of it ,7 tons , other significant types were sugar beets ,9 tons , rapeseed ,5 tons and potatoes ,2 tons.

Products for ,2 million euros were exported from Lithuania to the foreign markets, of which products for ,2 million euros were Lithuanian origin.

Export of agricultural and food products accounted for Organic farming is constantly becoming more popular in Lithuania. The status of organic growers and producers in the country is granted by the public body Ekoagros.

In , there were such farms that occupied ,78 hectares. Foundation of the University of Vilnius in was a major factor of establishing local scientist community in Lithuania and making connections with other universities and scientists of Europe.

Due to the World Wars, Lithuanian science and scientists suffered heavily from the occupants, however some of them reached a world-class achievements in their lifetime.

Jonas Kubilius successfully resisted attempts to Russify the University of Vilnius. Nowadays, the country is among moderate innovators group in the International Innovation Index.

Pyragas contributed to Control of chaos with his way of delayed feedback control — Pyragas method. Lithuania has launched three satellites to the cosmos: In the Valley development programme was started aiming to upgrade Lithuanian scientific research infrastructure and encourage business and science cooperation.

Statistics of showed that 1. The largest number of tourists came from Germany ,8 thousand , Belarus ,9 thousand , Russia ,6 thousand , Poland ,4 thousand , Latvia ,4 thousand , Ukraine 84,0 thousand , and the UK 58,2 thousand.

Bicycle tourism is growing, especially in Lithuanian Seaside Cycle Route. Domestic tourism has been on the rise as well. Currently there are up to places of attraction in Lithuania.

Lithuania has a well developed communications infrastructure. The country has 2,8 million citizens [] and 5 million SIM cards.

In , Lithuania was top 30 in the world by average mobile broadband speeds and top 20 by average fixed broadband speeds. In , Lithuania was ranked 17th in United Nations' e-participation index.

Long-term project — — Development of Rural Areas Broadband Network RAIN was started with the objective to provide residents, state and municipal authorities and businesses with fibre-optic broadband access in rural areas.

RAIN infrastructure allows 51 communications operators to provide network services to their clients. The project was funded by the European Union and the Lithuanian government.

Lithuania received its first railway connection in the middle of the 19th century, when the Warsaw — Saint Petersburg Railway was constructed.

It included a stretch from Daugavpils via Vilnius and Kaunas to Virbalis. The first and only still operating tunnel was completed in This railway network is incompatible with European standard gauge and requires train switching.

Transportation is the 3rd largest sector in Lithuanian economy. Lithuania has an extensive network of motorways. Vilnius International Airport is the largest airport in Lithuania, but not among EU's largest airports.

Kaunas International Airport is also a small commercial cargo airport which started regular commercial cargo traffic in Lithuania has one of the largest fresh water supplies, compared with other countries in Europe.

Lithuania and Denmark are the only countries in Europe, which are fully equipped with fresh groundwater. Lithuanians consumes about 0.

Consequently, Lithuania is one of very few European countries where groundwater is used for centralized water supply.

With a large underground fresh water reserves, Lithuania exports mineral-rich water to other countries. Approved mineral water quantity is about 2.

Vilnius is the only Baltic capital that uses centralized water supplying from deep water springs, which are protected from pollution and has no nitrates or nitrites that are harmful to the human body.

Water is cleaned without chemicals in Lithuania. Systematic diversification of energy imports and resources is Lithuania's key energy strategy.

After the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant , Lithuania turned from electricity exporter to electricity importer. Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant is the only in the Baltic states power plant to be used for regulation of the power system's operation with generating capacity of MW for at least 12 hours.

Lithuania—Sweden submarine electricity interconnection NordBalt and Lithuania—Poland electricity interconnection LitPol Link were launched at the end of Gas Interconnection Poland—Lithuania GIPL , also known as Lithuania—Poland pipeline, is a proposed natural gas pipeline interconnection between Lithuania and Poland that is expected to be finished by In synchronising the Baltic States' electricity grid with the Synchronous grid of Continental Europe has started.

Since the Neolithic period the native inhabitants of the Lithuanian territory have not been replaced by any other ethnic group, so there is a high probability that the inhabitants of present-day Lithuania have preserved the genetic composition of their forebears relatively undisturbed by the major demographic movements, [] [] [] although without being actually isolated from them.

According to estimates, the age structure of the population was as follows: Lithuania has a sub-replacement fertility rate: Ethnic Lithuanians make up about five-sixths of the country's population and Lithuania has the most homogeneous population in the Baltic States.

In , the population of Lithuania stands at 2,,, Several sizeable minorities exist, such as Poles 5. Poles in Lithuania are the largest minority, concentrated in southeast Lithuania the Vilnius region.

Russians in Lithuania are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in two cities. Yiddish is spoken by members of the tiny remaining Jewish community in Lithuania.

Schools where Russian or Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities.

Minority schools are public, where the education is free taxpayer-funded. Lithuania has accepted quota refugees under the migrant plan agreed upon by EU member states in By the early 21st century, about two-thirds of the total population lived in urban areas.

As of [update] , Lithuania provides free state-funded healthcare to all citizens and registered long-term residents.

In —, the network of hospitals was restructured, as part of wider healthcare service reforms. It started in — with the expansion of ambulatory services and primary care.

As of [update] Lithuanian life expectancy at birth was The annual population growth rate increased by 0. By the vast majority of Lithuanian health care institutions were non-profit-making enterprises and a private sector developed, providing mostly outpatient services which are paid for out-of-pocket.

The Ministry of Health also runs a few health care facilities and is involved in the running of the two major Lithuanian teaching hospitals.

It is responsible for the State Public Health Centre which manages the public health network including ten county public health centres with their local branches.

The ten counties run county hospitals and specialised health care facilities. There is now Compulsory Health Insurance for Lithuanian residents.

Emergency medical services are provided free of charge to all residents. Access to hospital treatment is normally by referral by a General Practitioner.

According to the census, The Catholic Church was prosecuted by the Russian Empire as part of the Russification policies and by the Soviet Union as part of the overall anti-religious campaigns.

During the Soviet era, some priests actively led the resistance against the Communist regime, as symbolised by the Hill of Crosses and exemplified by The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania.

The community of Old Believers 0. This population fled or was expelled after the war , and today Protestantism is mainly represented by ethnic Lithuanians throughout the northern and western parts of the country, as well as in large urban areas.

Newly arriving evangelical churches have established missions in Lithuania since The historical communities of Lipka Tatars maintain Islam as their religion.

Lithuania was historically home to a significant Jewish community and was an important center of Jewish scholarship and culture from the 18th century until the eve of World War II.

Of the approximately , Jews who lived in Lithuania in June , almost all were killed during the Holocaust.

Romuva , the neopagan revival of the ancient religious practices , has gained popularity over the years.

Romuva claims to continue living pagan traditions, which survived in folklore and customs. The Constitution of Lithuania mandates ten-year education ending at age 16 and guarantees a free public higher education for students deemed 'good'.

Laws govern long-term educational strategy along with general laws on standards for higher education, vocational training, law and science, adult education, and special education.

According to Eurostat Lithuania leads among other countries of EU by people with secondary education Modern Lithuanian education system has multiple structural problems.

Insufficient funding, quality issues, and decreasing student population are the most prevalent.

Lithuanian teacher salaries are lowest in entire EU. Many Lithuanian professors have a second job to supplement their income. As a result, the student-teacher ratio is decreasing and expenditure per student is increasing, but schools, particularly in rural areas, are forced into reorganizations and consolidations.

As of [update] , there were 15 public and 6 private universities as well as 16 public and 11 private colleges in Lithuania see: List of universities in Lithuania.

Kaunas University of Technology is the largest technical university in the Baltic States and the 2nd largest university in Lithuania.

In an attempt to reduce costs [] and adapt to sharply decreasing number of high-school students, [] Lithuanian parliament decided to reduce the number of universities in Lithuania.

There are about 2. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , closely related to Latvian , although they are not mutually intelligible. It is written in an adapted version of the Roman script.

Lithuanian is believed to be the linguistically most conservative living Indo-European tongue , retaining many features of Proto Indo-European. Lehmann , Vladimir Toporov [] and others.

In the modern times, the Lithuanian language is divided into two dialects: The pronunciation of words varies in both dialects. Jonas Jablonskis works and activities are especially important for the Lithuanian literature moving from the use of dialects to a standard Lithuanian language.

The linguistic material which he collected was published in the 20 volumes of Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian and is still being used in research and in editing of texts and books.

There is a great deal of Lithuanian literature written in Latin , the main scholarly language of the Middle Ages. The edicts of the Lithuanian King Mindaugas is the prime example of the literature of this kind.

The Letters of Gediminas are another crucial heritage of the Lithuanian Latin writings. One of the first Lithuanian authors who wrote in Latin was Nicolaus Hussovianus around — after His poem Carmen de statura, feritate ac venatione bisontis A Song about the Appearance, Savagery and Hunting of the Bison , published in , describes the Lithuanian landscape, way of life and customs, touches on some actual political problems, and reflects the clash of paganism and Christianity.

An extraordinary figure in the cultural life of Lithuania in the 16th century was the lawyer and poet of Spanish origin Petrus Roysius Maurus Alcagnicensis around — The publicist, lawyer, and mayor of Vilnius, Augustinus Rotundus around wrote a no longer existent history of Lithuania in Latin around the year His Radivilias , intended to become the Lithuanian national epic, was published in Vilnius in Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language started being first published in the 16th century.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, as in the whole Christian Europe, Lithuanian literature was primarily religious.

The evolution of the old 14th—18th century Lithuanian literature ends with Kristijonas Donelaitis , one of the most prominent authors of the Age of Enlightenment.

Donelaitis' poem Metai The Seasons is a landmark of the Lithuanian fiction literature, written in hexameter. This movement is thought to be the very reason the Lithuanian language and literature survived until today.

Several famous Lithuania-related architects are notable for their achievements in the field of architecture. Lithuania is also known for numerous castles.

About twenty castles exist in Lithuania. Some castles had to be rebuilt or survive partially. Many Lithuanian nobles ' historic palaces and manor houses have remained till the nowadays and were reconstructed.

During the interwar period , Art Deco , Lithuanian National Romanticism architectural style buildings were constructed in the Lithuania's temporary capital Kaunas.

Its architecture is regarded as one of the finest examples of the European Art Deco and has received the European Heritage Label.

The Lithuanian Art Museum was founded in and is the largest museum of art conservation and display in Lithuania. In two private museums were opened - MO Museum devoted to modern and contemporary Lithuanian art and Tartle [] , exhibiting a collection of Lithuanian art heritage and artefacts.

Lithuania has some very famous theatre directors well known in the country and abroad. He was awarded more than forty times with special prizes. Possibly most prestigious award is Swedish Commander Grand Cross: Order of the Polar Star.

After a year, similar American movies were available with the addition of special phonograph records that also provided sound. In , Romuva Cinema was opened in Kaunas and currently is the oldest still operational movie theater in Lithuania.

Lithuanian folk music belongs to Baltic music branch which is connected with neolithic corded ware culture.

Two instrument cultures meet in the areas inhabited by Lithuanians: Lithuanian folk music is archaic, mostly used for ritual purposes, containing elements of paganism faith.

There are three ancient styles of singing in Lithuania connected with ethnographical regions: During his short life he created about pieces of music.

His works have had profound influence on modern Lithuanian culture. He has been considered one of the pioneers of abstract art in Europe. In Lithuania, choral music is very important.

The first one took place in Kaunas in Since , the festival has been organised every four years and summons roughly 30, singers and folk dancers of various professional levels and age groups from across the country.

Most of those composers explored archaic Lithuanian music and its harmonic combination with modern minimalism and neoromanticism.

Jazz scene was active even during the years of Soviet occupation. After the Soviet reoccupation of Lithuania in , the Soviet's censorship continued firmly controlling all artistic expressions in Lithuania, and any violations by criticizing the regime would immediately result in punishments.

In the early independence years, rock band Foje was particularly popular and gathered tens of thousands of spectators to the concerts.

Lithuanian cuisine features the products suited to the cool and moist northern climate of Lithuania: Fish dishes are very popular in the coastal region.

Nevertheless, it has its own distinguishing features, which were formed by a variety of influences during the country's long and difficult history.

Freshwater fish, herring, wild berries and mushrooms, honey are highly popular diet to this day. One of the oldest and most fundamental Lithuanian food products was and is rye bread.

Rye bread is eaten every day for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Bread played an important role in family rituals and agrarian ceremonies.

Lithuanians and other nations which lived in Grand Duchy of Lithuania share many dishes and beverages. The most exotic of all the influences is Eastern Karaite cuisine — the kibinai are popular in Lithuania.

Lithuanian noblemen usually hired French chefs — French cuisine influence came to Lithuania in this way.

Balts were using mead midus for thousands of years. Lithuania has a long farmhouse beer tradition, first mentioned in 11th century chronicles.

Beer was brewed for ancient Baltic festivities and rituals. The Constitution of Lithuania provides for freedom of speech and press , and the government generally respects these rights in practice.

An independent press, an effective judiciary, and a functioning democratic political system combine to promote these freedoms.

However, the constitutional definition of freedom of expression does not protect certain acts, such as incitement to national, racial, religious, or social hatred, violence and discrimination, or slander, and disinformation.

It is a crime to deny or "grossly trivialize" Soviet or Nazi German crimes against Lithuania or its citizens, or to deny genocide, crimes against humanity , or war crimes.

As a result of a thousand-years history, Lithuania has two National days. First one is the Statehood Day on 6 July, marking the establishment of the medieval Kingdom of Lithuania by Mindaugas in Creation of modern Lithuanian state is commemorated on 16 February as a Lithuanian State Reestablishment Day on which declaration of independence from Russia and Germany was declared in As of , there are 13 public holidays which come with a day off.

Basketball is the most popular and national sport of Lithuania. The Lithuania national basketball team has had significant success in international basketball events, having won the EuroBasket on three occasions , and , as well a total of 8 other medals in the Eurobasket, the World Championships and the Olympic Games.

Lithuania has won a total of 25 medals at the Olympic Games , including 6 gold medals in athletics , modern pentathlon , shooting , and swimming.

Numerous other Lithuanians won Olympic medals representing Soviet Union. Discus thrower Virgilijus Alekna is the most successful Olympic athlete of independent Lithuania, having won gold medals in the Sydney and Athens games, as well as a bronze in Beijing Olympics and numerous World Championship medals.

Lithuania has produced prominent athletes in athletics, modern pentathlon, road and track cycling , chess , rowing , aerobatics , strongman , wrestling , boxing , mixed martial arts , Kyokushin Karate and other sports.

Few Lithuanian athletes have found success in winter sports , although facilities are provided by several ice rinks and skiing slopes, including Snow Arena , the first indoor ski slope in the Baltics.

A Lithuanian ethnic sport, known since the 17th century is ritinis. Lithuanians annually participates in the Dakar Rally.

The following are links to international rankings of Lithuania from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

Edit Read in another language Lithuania. This article is about the European country. For other uses, see Lithuania disambiguation.

Kingdom of Lithuania and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic. After refusal to revocate the Act, the Soviet forces stormed the Seimas Palace , while Lithuanians irresistibly defended their democratically elected Council.

Lithuania has all four seasons of the year with hot summers and cold winters. Typical Lithuanian flatlands with lakes, swamps and forests. Thousands of various lakes lies in Lithuania and creates magnificent sights from the bird's eye view.

Marshes were widely used during the Lithuanian Crusade to drown the heavily armed Teutonic Knights. Defensive castles were built on piliakalniai to defend against invaders.

Administrative divisions of Lithuania. Foreign relations of Lithuania. Communication Edit Main article: Renewable energy in Lithuania.

Ethnic minorities in Lithuania. Residents of Lithuania by ethnicity [1] Lithuanians. List of cities in Lithuania.

Largest cities or towns in Lithuania Statistics Lithuania []. Residents of Lithuania by religion [] Catholic. Romuva sanctuary in Sambia , where Krivis, the chief priest or "pagan pope", lived and ruled over the religion of all the Balts.

Paul in Vilnius with over 2, different interior decor elements. Lithuania has strong Roman Catholic traditions. It was founded in and was designed by the Italian architects.

Cathedral of the Theotokos , Orthodox Church. It was built in by the Grand Duke of Lithuania Algirdas. Choral Synagogue of Vilnius.

Almost whole rich culture of the Litvaks was destroyed during the Nazi occupation. A priest, lexicographer Konstantinas Sirvydas — cherisher of Lithuanian language in 17th century.

Jonas Jablonskis is the father of standard Lithuanian language. List of museums in Lithuania. Rock music in Lithuania.

Public holidays in Lithuania. Retrieved 6 October Nach der Affäre um den ehemaligen Präsidenten Rolandas Paksas ist ein Teil seiner Wählerschaft zur neu gegründeten Arbeitspartei übergelaufen.

Mit dem Niedergang der Arbeitspartei haben die Liberaldemokraten ihre Stellung festigen können. Sie sind neben Sozialdemokraten und Konservativen in Stadt und Land gleich stark vertreten.

Nach der Zersplitterung der Parteienlandschaft nach den Wahlen von war in den letzten Jahren eine gewisse periodische Konsolidierung jeweils vor den anstehenden Wahlen festzustellen, um in einer Koalition die Wahlaussichten zu verbessern, so etwa die Koalition von Liberaler Union , Zentrumsunion und Modernen Christdemokraten zur Liberalen und Zentrumsunion im Jahr Die Sozialdemokraten bildeten mit den Sozialliberalen angesichts verheerender Wahlprognosen ein Wahlbündnis A.

Zuletzt erfolgte der Zusammenschluss der Christdemokraten mit dem Vaterlandsbund. Interessenverbände spielen im politischen System keine so wichtige Rolle wie in anderen Ländern.

Die Gewerkschaften haben sehr geringe Bedeutung im politischen und sozialen Leben. Die Abgrenzung der Parteien untereinander ist gering und kaum durch ideologische Barrieren behindert.

Litauen ist Mitglied vieler internationaler Organisationen. Die Medien beider Länder unterstützten Wiktor Juschtschenko. Mai ist Litauen Mitglied der EU.

Die bereits für den 1. Januar geplante Einführung des Euro wurde verschoben. Sie erfolgte am 1. Mit der Erweiterung des Schengener Raums trat auch Litauen diesem bei.

Lettland und Polen, wurden am Das Verhältnis zwischen Litauen und Russland ist angespannt. Unter anderem verbot die russische Regierung den Import von Milchprodukten aus Litauen.

Litauen ist seit dem 1. Mai Mitgliedstaat der Europäischen Union siehe: Die Beitrittsverhandlungen zwischen Litauen und der EU erreichten wichtige Fortschritte, die hauptsächlich unter der damaligen schwedischen EU-Ratspräsidentschaft erzielt wurden.

Litauen durfte wegen überhöhter Inflation nicht der Euro-Zone beitreten. Abgelöst wurde Litauen durch Griechenland Januar bis Juni März der NATO beitraten.

Litauische Truppen nehmen an internationalen Friedensaktionen im Kosovo und Afghanistan teil. Bush Anfang bei verbündeten bzw.

Im Juni waren Litauer im Irak. Die Anwesenheit einer Kampfgruppe von etwa Soldaten aus anderen europäischen Staaten in Litauen sei deshalb als Mittel zur Abschreckung nach Einschätzung des litauischen Verteidigungsministers vom März notwendig.

Litauen gab knapp 1,7 Prozent seiner Wirtschaftsleistung oder 0,8 Milliarden Dollar für seine Streitkräfte aus.

Seit der Verwaltungsreform der er Jahre gibt es in Litauen nur eine Ebene von Gebietskörperschaften mit gewählten Ratsversammlungen und gewählten Bürgermeistern.

In Zuschnitt und Funktion liegen sie zwischen deutschen Gemeinden und deutschen Kreisen. Unterhalb der Selbstverwaltungen gibt es noch die über Gemeindebezirke, mit administrativen Aufgaben aber ohne Selbstverwaltungsorgane.

Die meisten Städte und Dörfer sind keine Gebietskörperschaften, sondern nur statistische Einheiten. Über den Selbstverwaltungen gibt es noch eine Verwaltungsebene.

Die zehn Verwaltungsbezirke lit. Juli waren die Bezirke mit von der Regierung eingesetzten Präfekten ohne gewählte Organe, aber mit den Verwaltungen Beamten ausgestattet.

Traditionell wird Litauen in vier historische Regionen eingeteilt: Mit dem Übergang von der Plan- zur Marktwirtschaft war ein struktureller Wandel verbunden.

Die litauische Wirtschaft befindet sich seit einigen Jahren nunmehr auf Wachstumskurs ca. Euro, [51] das BIP pro Kopf bei Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von umgerechnet 15,1 Mrd.

US-Dollar , dem standen Einnahmen von umgerechnet 14,6 Mrd. RBMK wie auch in Tschornobyl bereitgestellt. Nachdem der erste Reaktor zu Jahresbeginn abgeschaltet wurde, ging der zweite und letzte Reaktor wegen der Verpflichtungen aus dem EU-Beitrittsabkommen zum Dezember vom Netz.

Um diese Abhängigkeit auf absehbare Zeit wieder zu reduzieren, ist der Bau des Kernkraftwerks Visaginas geplant.

Im Referendum über einen Wiedereinstieg Litauens in die Kernenergienutzung am Erneuerbare Energien werden in den letzten Jahren vermehrt eingesetzt, insbesondere Energieerzeugung aus Biomasse.

Litauen hat das in der EU und Europa am besten ausgebaute Glasfasernetz. Damit ist Litauen im europäischen Vergleich prozentual führend.

Der Anschluss an das Festnetz ist vom Anschlussinhaber zu finanzieren, so dass speziell in ländlichen Gebieten Festnetzanschlüsse meist nur dort vorhanden sind, wo sie bereits unter sowjetischer Besetzung gebaut wurden.

Das litauische Mobilfunknetz Telefon und Internet ist deshalb sehr gut ausgebaut, selbst in ländlichen Gegenden und im Wald gibt es selten Funklöcher.

Helsinki , die langfristig zur Vollautobahn ausgebaut werden soll. Daneben sind die Memel und die Neris für die Binnenschifffahrt befahrbar.

Litauen hat vier internationale Flughäfen: Es bestehen Verbindungen in zahlreiche Länder Europas. Diese Busverbindung ersetzte den bis zwischen Vilnius und Warschau verkehrenden direkten Nachtzug.

Für die nationale und internationale Personenbeförderung spielt auch der Omnibusverkehr z. Litauen wird von vielen verschiedenen kulturellen Einflüssen geprägt.

Da ist zum einen die lange Selbstständigkeit und Aufrechterhaltung einer nichtchristlichen Staatsreligion, die lange gemeinsame Geschichte mit Polen, Beziehungen zur Hanse und im Ostseeraum, Zugehörigkeit zum russischen Zarenreich.

Im Westen des Landes ist hanseatisch - nordeuropäische Tradition mit starken deutschen, dänischen und schwedischen Einflüssen sichtbar, z. Im Osten, besonders in Vilnius, sind vielfach polnische Kulturelemente präsent.

Erste litauische Filme wurden bereits von nach Amerika ausgewanderten Litauern realisiert. Anfang der er Jahre wurde das Lietuvos kino studija gegründet, das zur Zeit der Sowjetunion unter staatlicher Kontrolle war und zur alleinigen Zentrale für die litauische Filmindustrie wurde.

Nach der Unabhängigkeit ging die Zahl der litauischen Filme stark zurück und private Unternehmen übernahmen die Filmindustrie.

Es gibt zahlreiche Museen und Galerien in Litauen. Seit der Unabhängigkeit Litauens im Jahr , die von breiten Bevölkerungsschichten unterstützt wurde, ist die Zustimmung zur Demokratie hoch.

Dementsprechend haben sich relativ gefestigte Institutionen entwickelt. Auch bildeten sich in Litauen zunehmend gesellschaftlich verankerte Interessengruppen heraus, die Rolle der Gewerkschaften ist allerdings eher unbedeutend.

Generell herrscht eher Skepsis gegenüber staatlichen Einrichtungen und den Entscheidungen des Parlaments.

Homosexualität wurde zwar legalisiert, sie ist aber nach wie vor weithin ein Tabu. Bei der Rangliste der Pressefreiheit , welche von Reporter ohne Grenzen herausgegeben wird, belegte Litauen Platz 36 von Ländern.

In Litauen erscheinen einige national verbreitete Tageszeitungen , darunter die Lietuvos rytas und die deutschsprachige Baltische Rundschau.

Basketball ist der Nationalsport in Litauen. Die Litauische Basketballmannschaft zählt zu den besten Mannschaften Europas und konnte dreimal die Europameisterschaft gewinnen.

Bereits und konnte Litauen die Europameisterschaften in dieser Sportart gewinnen. Diese Tradition fand ihre Fortsetzung in der sowjetischen Zeit als litauische Spieler immer wieder Teil der sowjetischen Auswahlteams waren.

Bei den ersten Olympischen Spielen nach der wiedererlangten Unabhängigkeit konnte das litauische Basketballteam der Herren in Barcelona überraschend Bronze gewinnen, ein Erfolg, der und wiederholt werden konnte.

Andere Mannschaftssportarten fristen demgegenüber ein Schattendasein. Mit Laurynas Grigelis gibt es noch einen weiteren Tennisspieler aus Litauen, der aktuell in den Top steht.

Lietuvos Respublika Republik Litauen. Monatliche Durchschnittstemperaturen und -niederschläge für Kaunas. Liste der Museen in Litauen. UN, abgerufen am Litauisches Statistikamt, abgerufen am 4.

Dezember , überprüft am WHO website — Mental health. Mai , überprüft am Regime transition and the emergence of ethnic minorities.

Jacques Bertrand, Oded Haklai Hrsg. Democratization and Ethnic Minorities. State, Ethnicity, Indigenism and Citizenship.

World Scientific Publishing, Singapure , S. Women and the Vote. Russland stoppt alle Milch-Importe aus Litauen.

Osteuropäer leisten Washington den Treueschwur. März , gesichtet am Auswärtiges Amt , März , abgerufen am 4. Global Competitiveness Index — Rankings.

Global Competitiveness Index September amerikanisches Englisch. August amerikanisches Englisch.

deutsch lithuania auf -

Constitution Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija - adopted by citizens of the Republic of Lithuania in the Referendum of 25 October ; came into force on 2 November Sagen Sie uns Ihre Meinung! Republik Litauen eingeführt werden, hinlänglich mit den Buchstaben LT gekennzeichnet werden. Verfassung Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija - in einem Referendum am Planned are 18 contract works in 15 countries, three exhibitions that will take place in Germany, Finland and Holland, as well as three international conferences in Sunderland, Slovakia and Finland and three publications.. Vielen Dank für Ihr Feedback! Basically students from the European Union and the EEA stand practically on equal terms with German students and have free access to the German job market. I hope that, as the Republic of Lithuania has agreed, this nuclear power station will indeed be shut down. Für den Fall einer territorial-politischen Umgestaltung in den zu den baltischen Staaten.

The Helsinki Group , which was founded in Lithuania after the international conference in Helsinki Finland , where the post-WWII borders were acknowledged, announced a declaration for Lithuania's independence on foreign radio station.

Very soon it began to seek country's independence. On 23 August a big rally took place at the Vingis Park in Vilnius.

It was attended by approx. On 11 March , the Supreme Council announced the restoration of Lithuania's independence. On 20 April , the USSR imposed an economic blockade by stopping to deliver supplies of raw materials primarily oil to Lithuania.

Not only the domestic industry, but also the population started feeling the lack of fuel, essential goods, and even hot water. Although the blockade lasted for 74 days, Lithuania did not renounce the declaration of independence.

Gradually, the economic relations had been restored. However, the tension had peaked again in January But the situation was the opposite.

People from all over Lithuania flooded to Vilnius to defend their legitimately elected Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania and independence.

The coup ended with a few casualties of peaceful civilians and caused huge material loss. Not a single person who defended Lithuanian Parliament or other state institutions used a weapon, but the Soviet Army did.

Soviet soldiers killed 14 people and injured hundreds. A large part of the Lithuanian population participated in the January Events. On 31 July , Soviet paramilitaries killed seven Lithuanian border guards on the Belarusian border in what became known as the Medininkai Massacre.

On 25 October , the citizens of Lithuania voted in the referendum to adopt the current constitution.

On 14 February , during the direct general elections, Algirdas Brazauskas became the first president after the restoration of independence of Lithuania.

On 31 August , the last units of the Soviet Army left the territory of Lithuania. On 1 May , it became a full-fledged member of the European Union , and a member of the Schengen Agreement on 21 December It has around 99 kilometres The rest of the coast is sheltered by the Curonian sand peninsula.

The country's main and largest river, the Nemunas River , and some of its tributaries carry international shipping.

Lithuania lies at the edge of the North European Plain. Its landscape was smoothed by the glaciers of the last ice age , and is a combination of moderate lowlands and highlands.

Lithuania's climate, which ranges between maritime and continental , is relatively mild. Some winters can be very cold. Snow occurs every year, it can snow from October to April.

In some years sleet can fall in September or May. The growing season lasts days in the western part of the country and days in the eastern part.

Severe storms are rare in the eastern part of Lithuania but common in the coastal areas. The longest records of measured temperature in the Baltic area cover about years.

The data show warm periods during the latter half of the 18th century, and that the 19th century was a relatively cool period.

An early 20th century warming culminated in the s, followed by a smaller cooling that lasted until the s. A warming trend has persisted since then. Lithuania experienced a drought in , causing forest and peat bog fires.

The law provided the foundations for regulating social relations in the field of environmental protection, established the basic rights and obligations of legal and natural persons in preserving the biodiversity inherent in Lithuania, ecological systems and the landscape.

Lithuania does not have high mountains and its landscape is dominated by blooming meadows, dense forests and fertile fields of cereals.

However it stands out by the abundance of hillforts , which previously had castles where the ancient Lithuanians burned altars for pagan gods.

Many rivers are also flowing in Lithuania, most notably the longest Nemunas. Forest has long been one of the most important natural resources in Lithuania.

Lithuanian ecosystems include natural and semi-natural forests, bogs, wetlands, meadows , and anthropogenic agrarian and urban ecosystems.

Wetlands raised bogs, fens, transitional mires, etc. Changes in wetland plant communities resulted in the replacement of moss and grass communities by trees and shrubs, and fens not directly affected by land reclamation have become drier as a result of a drop in the water table.

In some cases, river and lake ecosystems continue to be impacted by anthropogenic eutrophication. Habitat deterioration is occurring in regions with very productive and expensive lands as crop areas are expanded.

The wildlife populations have rebounded as the hunting became more restricted and urbanization allowed replanting forests forests already tripled in size since their lows.

Currently, Lithuania has approximately , larger wild animals or 5 per each square kilometer. The most prolific large wild animal in every part of Lithuania is the roe deer , with , of them.

They are followed by boars 55, Wolves are, however, more ingrained into the mythology as there are just in Lithuania. Since Lithuania declared the restoration of its independence on 11 March , it has maintained strong democratic traditions.

It held its first independent general elections on 25 October , in which The Lithuanian head of state is the president, directly elected for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two terms.

The president oversees foreign affairs and national security, and is the commander-in-chief of the military. The president also appoints the prime minister and, on the latter's nomination, the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts.

The judges of the Constitutional Court Konstitucinis Teismas serve nine-year terms. They are appointed by the President, the Chairman of the Seimas, and the Chairman of the Supreme Court, each of whom appoint three judges.

The unicameral Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas , has members who are elected to four-year terms. Lithuania exhibits a fragmented multi-party system, [] with a number of small parties in which coalition governments are common.

Ordinary elections to the Seimas take place on the second Sunday of October every four years. Persons serving or due to serve a sentence imposed by the court 65 days before the election are not eligible.

Also, judges, citizens performing military service, and servicemen of professional military service and officials of statutory institutions and establishments may not stand for election.

The President of Lithuania is the head of state of the country, elected to a five-year term in a majority vote.

Elections take place on the last Sunday no more than two months before the end of current presidential term.

Same President may serve for not more than two terms. Each municipality in Lithuania is governed by a municipal council and a mayor , who is a member of the municipal council.

The number of members, elected on a four-year term, in each municipal council depends on the size of the municipality and varies from 15 in municipalities with fewer than 5, residents to 51 in municipalities with more than , residents.

Starting with , the mayor is elected directly by the majority of residents of the municipality. As of , the number of seats in the European Parliament allocated to Lithuania was The vote is open to all citizens of Lithuania, as well as citizens of other EU countries that permanently reside in Lithuania, who are at least 18 years old on the election day.

To be eligible for election, candidates must be at least 21 years old on the election day, citizen of Lithuania or citizen of another EU country permanently residing in Lithuania.

Candidates are not allowed to stand for election in more than one country. After regaining of independence in , the largely modified Soviet legal codes were in force for about a decade.

The current Constitution of Lithuania was adopted on 25 October The approach to the criminal law is inquisitorial , as opposed to adversarial ; it is generally characterised by an insistence on formality and rationalisation, as opposed to practicality and informality.

The European Union law is an integral part of the Lithuanian legal system since 1 May Lithuania, after breaking away from the Soviet Union had a difficult crime situation, however the Lithuanian law enforcement agencies eliminated many criminals over the years, making Lithuania a reasonably safe country.

In , there were 63, crimes registered in Lithuania. Of these, thefts comprised a large part with 19, cases While 2, crimes were very hard and hard crimes that may result in more than six years imprisonment , which is Totally, homicides or attempted homicide occurred Another problematic crime contraband cases also decreased by Meanwhile, crimes in electronic data and information technology security fields noticeably increased by Capital punishment in Lithuania was suspended in and fully eliminated in According to scientist Gintautas Sakalauskas, this is not because of a high criminality rate in the country, but due to Lithuania's high repression level and the lack of trust of the convicted, who are frequently sentenced to a jail imprisonment.

The current system of administrative division was established in and modified in to meet the requirements of the European Union.

The country's 10 counties Lithuanian: Each has its own elected government. The election of municipality councils originally occurred every three years, but now takes place every four years.

The council appoints elders to govern the elderships. Mayors have been directly elected since ; prior to that, they were appointed by the council.

Elderships, numbering over , are the smallest administrative units and do not play a role in national politics.

They provide necessary local public services—for example, registering births and deaths in rural areas. They are most active in the social sector, identifying needy individuals or families and organizing and distributing welfare and other forms of relief.

Lithuania became a member of the United Nations on 18 September , and is a signatory to a number of its organizations and other international agreements.

Lithuania has established diplomatic relations with countries. During the second half of , Lithuania assumed the role of the presidency of the European Union.

Lithuania is also active in developing cooperation among northern European countries. It has been a member of the Baltic Council since its establishment in The Baltic Council, located in Tallinn , is a permanent organisation of international cooperation that operates through the Baltic Assembly and the Baltic Council of Ministers.

Lithuania also cooperates with Nordic and the two other Baltic countries through the NB8 format.

NB6's focus is to discuss and agree on positions before presenting them to the Council of the European Union and at the meetings of EU foreign affairs ministers.

Its main aim is to promote integration and to close contacts between the region's countries. The Nordic Council of Ministers and Lithuania engage in political cooperation to attain mutual goals and to determine new trends and possibilities for joint cooperation.

The Council's information office aims to disseminate Nordic concepts and to demonstrate and promote Nordic cooperation. The Baltic Development Forum BDF is an independent nonprofit organization that unites large companies, cities, business associations and institutions in the Baltic Sea region.

In the BDF's 12th summit was held in Vilnius. In , Lithuania was elected to the United Nations Security Council for a two-year term, [] becoming the first Baltic country elected to this post.

During its membership, Lithuania actively supported Ukraine and often condemned Russia for the military intervention in Ukraine , immediately earning vast Ukrainians esteem.

The Lithuanian Armed Forces consist of some 15, active personnel, which may be supported by reserve forces. There are also special operation forces units in Afghanistan, placed in Kandahar Province.

Since joining international operations in , Lithuania has lost two soldiers: Normundas Valteris fell in Bosnia , as his patrol vehicle drove over a mine.

The Lithuanian National Defence Policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land, territorial waters and airspace, and its constitutional order.

Its main strategic goals are to defend the country's interests, and to maintain and expand the capabilities of its armed forces so they may contribute to and participate in the missions of NATO and European Union member states.

The defense ministry is responsible for combat forces, search and rescue , and intelligence operations. The 5, border guards fall under the Interior Ministry 's supervision and are responsible for border protection, passport and customs duties, and share responsibility with the navy for smuggling and drug trafficking interdiction.

A special security department handles VIP protection and communications security. Paramilitary organisation Lithuanian Riflemen's Union acts as civilian self-defence institution.

For a long time Lithuania lagged behind NATO allies in terms of defense spending, but in recent years it has begun to rapidly increase the funding.

In Lithuania intends to allocate 2. Lithuania has open and mixed economy that is classified as high-income economy by the World Bank.

On 1 January , euro became the national currency replacing litas at the rate of EUR 1. Agricultural products and food made Lithuanian GDP experienced very high real growth rates for decade up to , peaking at As a result, the country was often termed as a Baltic Tiger.

However, , due to Global financial crisis marked experienced a drastic decline — GDP contracted by According to IMF, financial conditions are conducive to growth and financial soundness indicators remain strong.

The public debt ratio in fell to 40 percent of GDP, to compare with In , Lithuania was third country, after Ireland and Singapore by the average job value of investment projects.

Next up are Germany and the UK, each representing In the period between and , one out of five Lithuanians left the country, mostly because of insufficient income situation [] or seeking the new experience and studies abroad.

Long term emigration and economy growth has resulted in noticeable shortages on the labor market [] and growth in salaries being larger than growth in labor efficiency.

Lithuania has a flat tax rate rather than a progressive scheme. The country has the lowest implicit rate of tax on capital 9. Information technology production is growing in the country, reaching 1.

Biggest companies in Lithuania in , by revenue: Agriculture in Lithuania dates to the Neolithic period, about 3, to 1, BC.

It has been one of Lithuania's most important occupations for many centuries. The EU pursues a very high standard of food safety and purity.

In , agricultural production was made for 2. Cereal crops occupied the largest part of it ,7 tons , other significant types were sugar beets ,9 tons , rapeseed ,5 tons and potatoes ,2 tons.

Products for ,2 million euros were exported from Lithuania to the foreign markets, of which products for ,2 million euros were Lithuanian origin.

Export of agricultural and food products accounted for Organic farming is constantly becoming more popular in Lithuania. The status of organic growers and producers in the country is granted by the public body Ekoagros.

In , there were such farms that occupied ,78 hectares. Foundation of the University of Vilnius in was a major factor of establishing local scientist community in Lithuania and making connections with other universities and scientists of Europe.

Due to the World Wars, Lithuanian science and scientists suffered heavily from the occupants, however some of them reached a world-class achievements in their lifetime.

Jonas Kubilius successfully resisted attempts to Russify the University of Vilnius. Nowadays, the country is among moderate innovators group in the International Innovation Index.

Pyragas contributed to Control of chaos with his way of delayed feedback control — Pyragas method. Lithuania has launched three satellites to the cosmos: In the Valley development programme was started aiming to upgrade Lithuanian scientific research infrastructure and encourage business and science cooperation.

Statistics of showed that 1. The largest number of tourists came from Germany ,8 thousand , Belarus ,9 thousand , Russia ,6 thousand , Poland ,4 thousand , Latvia ,4 thousand , Ukraine 84,0 thousand , and the UK 58,2 thousand.

Bicycle tourism is growing, especially in Lithuanian Seaside Cycle Route. Domestic tourism has been on the rise as well. Currently there are up to places of attraction in Lithuania.

Lithuania has a well developed communications infrastructure. The country has 2,8 million citizens [] and 5 million SIM cards.

In , Lithuania was top 30 in the world by average mobile broadband speeds and top 20 by average fixed broadband speeds. In , Lithuania was ranked 17th in United Nations' e-participation index.

Long-term project — — Development of Rural Areas Broadband Network RAIN was started with the objective to provide residents, state and municipal authorities and businesses with fibre-optic broadband access in rural areas.

RAIN infrastructure allows 51 communications operators to provide network services to their clients. The project was funded by the European Union and the Lithuanian government.

Lithuania received its first railway connection in the middle of the 19th century, when the Warsaw — Saint Petersburg Railway was constructed.

It included a stretch from Daugavpils via Vilnius and Kaunas to Virbalis. The first and only still operating tunnel was completed in This railway network is incompatible with European standard gauge and requires train switching.

Transportation is the 3rd largest sector in Lithuanian economy. Lithuania has an extensive network of motorways. Vilnius International Airport is the largest airport in Lithuania, but not among EU's largest airports.

Kaunas International Airport is also a small commercial cargo airport which started regular commercial cargo traffic in Lithuania has one of the largest fresh water supplies, compared with other countries in Europe.

Lithuania and Denmark are the only countries in Europe, which are fully equipped with fresh groundwater. Lithuanians consumes about 0. Consequently, Lithuania is one of very few European countries where groundwater is used for centralized water supply.

With a large underground fresh water reserves, Lithuania exports mineral-rich water to other countries. Approved mineral water quantity is about 2.

Vilnius is the only Baltic capital that uses centralized water supplying from deep water springs, which are protected from pollution and has no nitrates or nitrites that are harmful to the human body.

Water is cleaned without chemicals in Lithuania. Systematic diversification of energy imports and resources is Lithuania's key energy strategy.

After the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant , Lithuania turned from electricity exporter to electricity importer.

Kruonis Pumped Storage Plant is the only in the Baltic states power plant to be used for regulation of the power system's operation with generating capacity of MW for at least 12 hours.

Lithuania—Sweden submarine electricity interconnection NordBalt and Lithuania—Poland electricity interconnection LitPol Link were launched at the end of Gas Interconnection Poland—Lithuania GIPL , also known as Lithuania—Poland pipeline, is a proposed natural gas pipeline interconnection between Lithuania and Poland that is expected to be finished by In synchronising the Baltic States' electricity grid with the Synchronous grid of Continental Europe has started.

Since the Neolithic period the native inhabitants of the Lithuanian territory have not been replaced by any other ethnic group, so there is a high probability that the inhabitants of present-day Lithuania have preserved the genetic composition of their forebears relatively undisturbed by the major demographic movements, [] [] [] although without being actually isolated from them.

According to estimates, the age structure of the population was as follows: Lithuania has a sub-replacement fertility rate: Ethnic Lithuanians make up about five-sixths of the country's population and Lithuania has the most homogeneous population in the Baltic States.

In , the population of Lithuania stands at 2,,, Several sizeable minorities exist, such as Poles 5. Poles in Lithuania are the largest minority, concentrated in southeast Lithuania the Vilnius region.

Russians in Lithuania are the second largest minority, concentrated mostly in two cities. Yiddish is spoken by members of the tiny remaining Jewish community in Lithuania.

Schools where Russian or Polish are the primary languages of education exist in the areas populated by these minorities. Minority schools are public, where the education is free taxpayer-funded.

Lithuania has accepted quota refugees under the migrant plan agreed upon by EU member states in By the early 21st century, about two-thirds of the total population lived in urban areas.

As of [update] , Lithuania provides free state-funded healthcare to all citizens and registered long-term residents. In —, the network of hospitals was restructured, as part of wider healthcare service reforms.

It started in — with the expansion of ambulatory services and primary care. As of [update] Lithuanian life expectancy at birth was The annual population growth rate increased by 0.

By the vast majority of Lithuanian health care institutions were non-profit-making enterprises and a private sector developed, providing mostly outpatient services which are paid for out-of-pocket.

The Ministry of Health also runs a few health care facilities and is involved in the running of the two major Lithuanian teaching hospitals.

It is responsible for the State Public Health Centre which manages the public health network including ten county public health centres with their local branches.

The ten counties run county hospitals and specialised health care facilities. There is now Compulsory Health Insurance for Lithuanian residents.

Emergency medical services are provided free of charge to all residents. Access to hospital treatment is normally by referral by a General Practitioner.

According to the census, The Catholic Church was prosecuted by the Russian Empire as part of the Russification policies and by the Soviet Union as part of the overall anti-religious campaigns.

During the Soviet era, some priests actively led the resistance against the Communist regime, as symbolised by the Hill of Crosses and exemplified by The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania.

The community of Old Believers 0. This population fled or was expelled after the war , and today Protestantism is mainly represented by ethnic Lithuanians throughout the northern and western parts of the country, as well as in large urban areas.

Newly arriving evangelical churches have established missions in Lithuania since The historical communities of Lipka Tatars maintain Islam as their religion.

Lithuania was historically home to a significant Jewish community and was an important center of Jewish scholarship and culture from the 18th century until the eve of World War II.

Of the approximately , Jews who lived in Lithuania in June , almost all were killed during the Holocaust. Romuva , the neopagan revival of the ancient religious practices , has gained popularity over the years.

Romuva claims to continue living pagan traditions, which survived in folklore and customs. The Constitution of Lithuania mandates ten-year education ending at age 16 and guarantees a free public higher education for students deemed 'good'.

Laws govern long-term educational strategy along with general laws on standards for higher education, vocational training, law and science, adult education, and special education.

According to Eurostat Lithuania leads among other countries of EU by people with secondary education Modern Lithuanian education system has multiple structural problems.

Insufficient funding, quality issues, and decreasing student population are the most prevalent. Lithuanian teacher salaries are lowest in entire EU.

Many Lithuanian professors have a second job to supplement their income. As a result, the student-teacher ratio is decreasing and expenditure per student is increasing, but schools, particularly in rural areas, are forced into reorganizations and consolidations.

As of [update] , there were 15 public and 6 private universities as well as 16 public and 11 private colleges in Lithuania see: List of universities in Lithuania.

Kaunas University of Technology is the largest technical university in the Baltic States and the 2nd largest university in Lithuania.

In an attempt to reduce costs [] and adapt to sharply decreasing number of high-school students, [] Lithuanian parliament decided to reduce the number of universities in Lithuania.

There are about 2. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , closely related to Latvian , although they are not mutually intelligible.

It is written in an adapted version of the Roman script. Lithuanian is believed to be the linguistically most conservative living Indo-European tongue , retaining many features of Proto Indo-European.

Lehmann , Vladimir Toporov [] and others. In the modern times, the Lithuanian language is divided into two dialects: The pronunciation of words varies in both dialects.

Jonas Jablonskis works and activities are especially important for the Lithuanian literature moving from the use of dialects to a standard Lithuanian language.

The linguistic material which he collected was published in the 20 volumes of Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian and is still being used in research and in editing of texts and books.

There is a great deal of Lithuanian literature written in Latin , the main scholarly language of the Middle Ages.

The edicts of the Lithuanian King Mindaugas is the prime example of the literature of this kind. The Letters of Gediminas are another crucial heritage of the Lithuanian Latin writings.

One of the first Lithuanian authors who wrote in Latin was Nicolaus Hussovianus around — after His poem Carmen de statura, feritate ac venatione bisontis A Song about the Appearance, Savagery and Hunting of the Bison , published in , describes the Lithuanian landscape, way of life and customs, touches on some actual political problems, and reflects the clash of paganism and Christianity.

Synonyme Synonyme Englisch für "Lithuania": English Lietuva Republic of Lithuania. English Lithuania alone saw a quarter of its sons and daughters perish in the gulags.

English What we must respect absolutely is Lithuania 's sovereignty in this matter. English The security interests of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania must be taken seriously.

English In three days the state of Lithuania will celebrate its Independence Day. English The other key electricity interconnection project in the region is the Poland to Lithuania link.

English There are abundant untouched natural resources in the Central European States, including Lithuania. English Mr President, I travelled abroad for the first time in , when Lithuania declared independence.

Die Mehrheit davon sind junge Erwachsene. Schätzungen zufolge leben oder arbeiten etwa Nach statistischen Angaben haben seit über Das litauische Statistikamt gibt die inoffizielle Abwanderungsrate für bis mit etwa Zwischen und gab es einen markanten Unterschied: So haben nur Bis dato ist das Vereinigte Königreich das beliebteste Auswanderungsziel der Litauer.

An zweiter Stelle folgt Irland mit Der Alkoholmissbrauch hat dabei bei den Männern deutlich negative Auswirkungen auf die Lebenserwartung. Jedoch gibt es im Land auch nationale Minderheiten, überwiegend Slawen.

Die polnische Minderheit in Litauen , die vor allem im Bezirk Vilnius lebt, ist teilweise seit mehreren hundert Jahren ansässig. Russen sind zumeist während und nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg nach Litauen gekommen, als das Land Teil der Sowjetunion war.

Daneben leben in Litauen noch [32] 1. Die kleinste Minderheit stellen die Karäer dar, ein judaisiertes Turkvolk , das überwiegend in Trakai siedelt und noch ca.

Litauisch als Muttersprache sprechen ca. Das Litauische gehört zu den baltischen Sprachen , zu denen auch das Lettische zählt.

Es gilt in vielen Eigenschaften als besonders archaisch und daher der rekonstruierten indogermanischen Ursprache besonders nahestehend. Durch die lange Präsenz des Russischen in Litauen hat sich das von den Polen gesprochene Polnisch teilweise mit russischen Wörtern und Ausdrücken vermischt, das nun als litauisches Polnisch gesprochen wird.

Laut einer Umfrage vom Oktober [34] bezeichnen sich gut zwei Drittel der befragten Katholiken als den Glauben praktizierend.

Der Anfang Litauens als Staat liegt im Jahrhundert, nachdem baltische Stämme das bestehende Staatsgebiet ab dem 3.

Jahrtausend vor Christus besiedelt hatten. Die Staatenbildung erfolgte gerade noch zeitig genug, um den von Norden und Süden vordringenden Rittern des Deutschen Ordens erfolgreich Widerstand leisten zu können.

Parallel dazu erfolgte bereits im Jahrhundert die Expansion nach Osten. Aus dem Zerfall der alten Kiewer Rus nach dem Mongolensturm bis hatten sich mehrere Nachfolgefürstentümer entwickelt.

Durch den Deutschen Orden wurde Litauen an einer expansiven Westpolitik gehindert, während die Ostflanke durch den Tatareneinbruch offen lag.

Die litauische Ostexpansion fand ihren Höhepunkt in der ersten Hälfte des Jagiello begründete das Herrschergeschlecht der Jagiellonen.

Nach der siegreichen Schlacht bei Tannenberg wurde die Bedrohung durch den Deutschen Orden endgültig beseitigt. Diese Schlacht war von einem vereinten polnisch-litauischen Heer gewonnen worden.

Die enge politische Einheit Polens und Litauens mündete in die Realunion von Lublin , die das Ende des eigenständigen Litauens bedeutete, nachdem der litauische Adel bereits in den vorangegangenen Jahrzehnten zunehmend unter den Einfluss der polnischen Kultur und Sprache gelangt war.

So ging Litauen in den Zeiten der Reformation den polnischen Weg und blieb katholisch, während das nördliche, deutsch beeinflusste Baltikum protestantisch wurde.

Litauen blieb bis zu den Teilungen Polens beim polnischen Staat und kam dann unter russische Herrschaft. Zwei polnisch-litauische Aufstände in den Jahren und wurden vom russischen Zaren blutig unterdrückt.

Der Erste Weltkrieg mit der Oktoberrevolution und dem nachfolgenden Bürgerkrieg führte im Februar — unter deutscher Besatzung — zur Ausrufung der unabhängigen Republik Litauen, die nach Kämpfen gegen Rote Armee und polnische Truppen auch durchgesetzt werden konnte.

Es wurden neue Verfassungen eingeführt, die die autoritäre Führung Smetonas bestätigten, darunter die Litauische Verfassung von und die von Nach einem deutschen Ultimatum musste Litauen am März das Memelland an Deutschland abtreten.

Das Memelland hatte bis zum Deutschen Reich gehört, war seitdem zwischen Deutschland und Litauen umstritten und stand daher seit dem Friedensvertrag von Versailles unter französischer Völkerbundsverwaltung.

Es war am Smetona dankte im Juni ab, und nach dem Einmarsch sowjetischer Truppen wurde eine pro-sowjetische Regierung ins Amt gebracht, die den Beitritt zur Sowjetunion erklärte 3.

Viele der Deportierten starben in den Straflagern im Osten der Sowjetunion. Im Zuge der Perestrojka , die im Baltikum die singende Revolution auslöste, erklärte sich Litauen als erste Unionsrepublik der Sowjetunion zum souveränen Staat und benannte den Obersten Sowjet in Verfassunggebende Versammlung um.

Island war der erste Staat, der, ebenfalls , das unabhängige Litauen anerkannte. Am Vilniusser Blutsonntag , dem In Reaktion darauf erklärten am 8.

Nach anfänglicher Wirtschaftskrise und politischer Instabilität aufgrund einer radikalen Privatisierung gewann die Reformpolitik zunehmend an Dynamik, insbesondere nach Überwindung der Russland-Krise im Jahre Dezember ist Litauen Teil des Schengener Raums.

Litauen ist eine semipräsidentielle Demokratie. Hauptstadt und Regierungssitz der Republik Litauen ist Vilnius. Nach der Verfassung ist die Republik Litauen eine demokratische und rechtsstaatliche Republik mit Gewaltenteilung.

Das Vertrauen der Bürger in die Realisierung der Demokratie ist jedoch eher gering: Staatsoberhaupt ist der Präsident , der im Gegensatz etwa zum deutschen Bundespräsidenten nicht nur repräsentative Aufgaben wahrnimmt.

Darüber hinaus verfügt er über ein weitgehendes Veto-Recht, das es ihm ermöglicht, zuvor vom Seimas erlassene Gesetze zu blockieren.

Das litauische Parlament wird Seimas genannt. Der Name stammt von der polnischen Bezeichnung Sejm und verweist auf die lange gemeinsame litauisch-polnische Geschichte.

Das Einkammerparlament besteht aus Parlamentariern, [39] die für vier Jahre gewählt werden. Die letzten Parlamentswahlen erfolgten im Oktober Das Parlament hat die Befugnis, mit Zweidrittelmehrheit die Verfassung zu ändern.

Der Regierungschef Litauens ist der Premierminister. Er besitzt die Richtlinienkompetenz für die Politik der Regierung.

Die Verwaltung Litauens wird jeweils durch die Fachminister geleitet, sie stehen an der Spitze des Ministeriums und anderer untergeordneter Behörden.

Das Frauenwahlrecht führte Litauen ein. Die litauische Parteienlandschaft ist zersplittert. Den kleineren Parteien kommt durch die häufigen Regierungskrisen und wechselnde Mehrheiten im Parlament ein nicht unerheblicher Einfluss bei der parlamentarischen Willensbildung zu Siehe auch: Sie sind in der Festlegung ihrer praktischen Positionen mehr von ihren politischen Führungskräften und deren persönlichen Interessen abhängig, als von Parteiprogrammen oder festen ideologischen Ansichten.

Mehrere Parteien wurden zu dem Zweck gegründet, Einzelpersonen eine Parteiplattform zu bieten: Die genannten Parteiführer konnten sich zuvor in ihrer Stammpartei nicht durchsetzen und gründeten kurzerhand eine neue Partei, um ihren Interessen mehr Gewicht zu verleihen.

Lithuania auf deutsch -

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